The Republic Day of India (Gantantra Divas)is a national holiday of India to mark the transition of India from a British Dominion to a republic on January 26,1950. This is not to be confused with the Independence Day (India)on August 15th.
Although India obtained its independence on August 15, 1947, the Constitution of India came into effect only on January 26, 1950. During the transition period from 1947 to 1950, George VI King was the head of state. Lord Mountbatten and C. Rajagopalachari served as Governors-General of India during this period. Following January 26, 1950, Rajendra Prasad was elected as the first president of India.
To mark the importance of this occasion, every year a grand parade is held in the capital, New Delhi. The different regiments of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force march past in all their finery and official decorations. The President of India who is the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Armed Forces, takes the salute.
Celebrations, though on a much smaller scale, are also held in state capitals, where the governor of the state unfurls the national flag. If the Governer of the state is unwell, or is unavailable for some reason, the Chief Minister of the state assumes the honor of unfurling the National Flag of India.
On January 26, 1950. The Constituent Assembly was convened and appointed a committee with Dr. B.R.Ambedkar as Chairman to draft the Constitution. India declared herself to be a Sovereign Democratic Republic. The Indian Constitution, the longest in the world, consist 397 articles and 12 schedules which provides for a single citizenship for the whole of India.
It gives the right to vote to all citizens of 18 years and above, unless they are disqualified. Fundamental rights are guaranteed to the citizens, equality of religion and so on. The Supreme Court, consisting of the Chief Justice of India and other judges, is the guardian of the Constitution. It stands at the apex of a single integrated judicial system for the whole country. This is where the fundamental rights of the citizens are protected.
The Political Model – The constitution pledge to solemnly resolve to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and secure to all citizens its rights like:
Justice, social, economic and political
Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship
Equality of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all
Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation.